Oaks of the World

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  Quercus cerris
Author L. 1753
Synonyms austriaca Willd. 1805
aegilops Scop. 1772, not L. nor Mill. nor Griseb.
cerris subsp austriaca (Willd.) Nyman 1881 ; ead. comb. 0.Schwarz 1934
cerris subsp tournefortii (Willd.) O.Schwarz 1934
cerris var. ciliata Kotschy
crinita Lam. 1785 (nom. illeg.)
dentata hort. or Watson 1873, not Thunb.
echinata Salisb. 1796 nom. illeg., not Lam. 1779
fasciculopilosa Kit.
lanuginosa Lam. 1779 (nom. illeg.)
nicotrae Lojac. 1907
pseudocerris Boiss.1853, not x pseudocerris Lojac., nor x pseudocerris Rouy
raynal K.Koch 1873
recurvisquamosa St-Lager 1881
thracica Stefanov & Nedjalkov 1956
tournefortii Willd. 1805
tukhtensis Czeczott 1932
x ambrosyana Simonkai 1909
Local names hairy oak; Lombard oak; Turkey oak; cerre; doucier;
Range South, Center and South-East Europe; Asia Minor; 50-2200 m;
Growth habit 20-30 m high and more; trunk to 2 m in diameter; crown conical first, then spreading;
Leaves 6-13 x 3-8 cm; lately decidous; subcoriaceous; oblong-elliptical; apex obtuse, base truncate; 5-9 pairs of lobes with deep sinuses reaching halfway to midrib or more, but variable; dark green and rough above, with stellate hairs; paler beneath with short, dense stellate pubescence; 5-12 pairs of lateral veins; petiole 0.5-2 cm, pubescent, sulcate;
Flowers male flowers in June on 5-6 cm, pendulous catkins at the base of twigs, crimson turning yellow brown; female flowers 1 to 5, on a short, pubescent peduncle; 4 styles; 
Fruits

acorn to 3 cm long; sessile or on a short peduncle 1 cm long; top flattened, pubescent; enclosed 1/2 by the cup; cup hairy, 1 cm high, 1.8 cm in diameter, with long, tomentose, slender, recurving scales; maturing in 2 years;

Bark, twigs and
buds

bark dull grey, thick, fissured; twigs gnarled, slightly pubescent, becoming grey brown; bud 3-4 mm, ovoid, surrounded with 1 cm long hairy stipules, and with persistent, twisted scales;
Hardiness zone, habitat hardy; all types of soils, even alkaline and poor; fast growing;
Miscellaneous

-- A. Camus : n° 122;
-- Sub-genus Cerris, Section Cerris;
-- Wood inferior (tends to split);

-- "lanuginosa" is a term frequently used by Authors, so it is better not to use it, in order to avoid confusions !
- Q. lanuginosa Franchet 1899 nom. illeg. = Q. franchetii
- Q. lanuginosa (Lam.)Thuill.1799 nom. illeg. = Q. pubescens
- Q. lanuginosa Beck 1890 nom. illeg. = Q. robur (sic !)
- Q. lanuginosa sensu Lam. 1778 nom. illeg. = Q. cerris L. 1753
- Q. lanuginosa D.Don 1825 nom. illeg. = Q. lanata

 

Subspecies and
varieties

--- For Govaerts, 2003, Q.gussonei (Borzi) Brullo 1984 (= Q.cerris var. gussonei Borzi 1911) is a true species, in N Sicily.

--- varieties
:
-- var. variegata, slow growing, 12 m; leaves margins whitish;
-- var. austriaca (Willd.) Loud.
= Q.austriaca Willd.
leaves grey beneath, lobes triangular; SE Europe;

--- cultivars:
-- "dentata" = Q.fulhamensis Zabel (see x hispanica)
-- "woden" = leaves larger than type and sinuses deeper.

--- hybrids: numerous...A good one is with Q. castaneifolia.

 

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