Oaks of the World

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 Quercus fruticosa
AuthorBrot. 1805
Synonyms Q.lusitanica Lam. 1785 ( nomen ambiguum), not Webb. nor Boiss.
aegylopifolia Boiss. ex A.DC 1864
australis Link 1829
baetica H.Buek 1874, not Villar 1938
brachycarpa Kotschy ex A.DC 1864
faginea subsp lusitanica (Lam.)
Maire 1931
fruticosa var. vulgaris (Cout.) A.Camus 1939
glauca Bosc ex Loisel 1825
humilis Lam. 1783 nom. illeg. not Miller 1768
lusitanica var. humilis (Lam.) Elwes & Henry 1910
muricata Palau ex Willk. & Lange 1862
ovalifolia Bosc ex Pers. 1807
prasina Bosc ex Endl.1847, not Pers. 1807
quexigo Cook ex Willk. & Lange 1862
rigida K.Koch ex A.DC 1864, not Willd. 1805
undulata K.Koch 1847, nom. illeg.
valentina Cav. 1793
lusitanica subsp valentina (Cav.) O.Schwarz 1936
zang Dippel 1891
Local names 
Rangesouthwest Spain; central and south Portugal; Morocco;
Growth habitreaches 10 m, but usually smaller (2 m), shrubby, spreading;
Leaves 3-5 cm long, semi-evergreen; leathery; oval oblong; entire; base cuneate; margin dentate apically (4-6 pairs of teeth curved upward); lustrous above with solitary, multiradiate and stellate hairs, becoming glabrous; whitish, somewhat glaucous, densely hairy beneath (multiradiate and fascicled hairs), especially along veins; 5-9 vein pairs; very short petiole;
Fruitssmall acorn; cup 1 cm in diameter, covered with narrow scales, on short and hairy peduncle; maturing in 1 year;

Bark, twigs and

bark rough, scaly; twig red brown, shiny;
Hardiness zone, habitatnot quite hardy; withstands -10°C; prefers dry soils;

-- A. Camus : n° 151 ;

-- the specific name "lusitanica" must be avoided: it is too much ambiguous because applied to several species:
1/ Q.lusitanica Webb and auctores = Q.faginea Lam.
2/ Q.lusitanica Boiss. = Q.infectoria Oliv.
3/ Q.lusitanica Lam. = Q.fruticosa Brot.

-- The term "undulata" inspired numerous Authors ! One can list the following :
Q.undulata Engelm 1878 (= Q.sinuata Walt.),
Kit.1863 (= Q.pubescens Willd.),
Benth. 1841 (= Q.benthamii A.DC),
Q.undulata K.Koch 1847 (= Q.lusitanica Lam.),
Torr 1827 (= Q.x undulata complex Little 1979),
Sarg., and A.DC ( describing more or less Q.x pauciloba ...),
Q.undulata S. Wats. (= Q.gambelii Nutt.) ;

-- the specific name "valentina" has been applied to various species :
Q.valentina Cav. 1793 = Q.fruticosa
Q.valentina K.Koch 1849 = Q.infectoria
Q.valentina Lam. ex Steudel 1821 = Q.velutina

Subspecies and

drawing of Q. fruticosa