Oaks of the World

General dataClassificationsList of speciesLocal namesBack to
home page

 Quercus coccifera
Author

L. 1753

Synonymsangustifolia (Laguna) Gonzalez-Albo 1936, not Sessé & Moç. 1894
arcuata Kotschy ex A.DC 1864
aucheri auctores, not Jaub. & Spach
brachybalanos Kotschy 1864
coccifera Tchich. 1860
coccifera subsp pseudococcifera (Desf.) Arcangeli 1882
inops Kotschy 1853
kermesiana hort.
kryptocarpa Svent. & Marcet
mesto Boiss.1842
pseudococcifera Desf.1799 not Labill. 1812
Local nameschêne kermès; garric; garrouille; Abraham's oak; Mamre oak; coscoja;
RangeMediterranean Region;
Growth habit 0.5 to 3-5 m; crown dense, rounded;
Leaves 1-3.5 x 0.7-2 cm; evergreen; oblong; base cordate to rounded; thickly leathery; margin cartilaginous, wavy, sharp-toothed (5-8 pairs of teeth); both surfaces green, but paler and sometimes slightly bloomy beneath; 5-8 vein pairs prominent beneath, diverging from midrib at more than 40°; petiole hairless, 3 mm long;
Flowers male flowers in early summer, on 3-5 cm glabrous catkins;
Fruitsacorn ovoid, 2 cm long, 1.5 wide; enclosed 1/2 to 2/3 by cup; cup with spiny, stiff, spreading or recurved scales; maturing in 2 years;

Bark, twigs and
buds

bark dull grey, often scaly on old trees; branchlet at first yellowish brown, hairy, becoming grey brown; bud ovoid, pointed, chesnut brown, 3 mm long;
Hardiness zone, habitat-- a little tender (zone 7-8), but withstands -15°C;
-- very slow growing, but long-lived; thrives in any rocky soil, but prefers calcareous ones;
-- does not appreciate seaside;
Miscellaneous-- A. Camus : n° 107;
-- Belongs to the Ilex Group, according to Denk & Grimm 2010;
-- In Flora Europaea, and for many other Authors, Q.coccifera and Q.calliprinos are synonyms;
Subspecies and
varieties

-- Some varieties, or formas, have been described, which are in fact probably geographical variations :
_ fo. angustifolia: leaves elliptic, 1.5 cm long, narrow, spiny, wavy, shiny light green;
_ fo. coccifera: leaves more than 3 cm long, less spiny, dark green;
_ fo. subintegrifolia: leaves entire resembling those of the beech.


-- Q.coccifera subsp rivasmartinezii J.H.Copelo & J.C.Costa 2001
reaches 15 m, with trunk to 60 cm in diameter; bark broken into square plates; leaves longer than the type, often with entire margins; 7-11 divaricate vein pairs; acorn oblong, cup with stiff scales shorter than in the type; Southwestern Portugal (Serra de Arrabida, Serra de Grandola), never in the Mediterranean Basin; it may be simply an ecotype of Q.coccifera. Withstands -14°C;

-- Q.calliprinos Webb 1838      (A. Camus : n° 108)
= Q. coccifera var. calliprinos Boiss
= Q. rigida Will. 1805 (A.Camus n° 109)
= Q. pseudococcifera Labill. 1812 non Desf. 1799
= Q. palaestina Kotschy 1862
= Q. pseudorigida Kotschy ex A.Camus 1934
= Q. fenzlii Kotschy 1862
= Q. calliprinos var. fenzlii (Kotschy) A.Camus 1933
= Q. coccifera subsp calliprinos (Webb) Menitsky or Holmboe
= Palestine oak
closely related to Q.coccifera, often confused with it; actually takes the place of Q.coccifera in E. Europe and Asia Minor;differs from Q.coccifera in having a bigger height (to 20 m, as the Mamra's Oak, or "Abraham Sacred Oak"), leaves wihtout cartilaginous margin, cupule scales that are not sharp.
    This species is very variable concerning cupule and scales, acorns, and also concerning leaves that may feature a stellate pubescence beneath (= var. puberula Zohary 1961, in Palestine and Jordania)

-- Hybrid with Q. suber : Q. x coscojosuberiformis Baonza

Pictures