Oaks of the World

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 Quercus falcata
AuthorMichx. 1801
Synonymsaurea Raf. 1838
cuneata Wangenh. 1787
digitata Sudw. 1892
discolor Spach, not Ait.
elongata Muhl. 1801
hudsoniana Dippel 1891
rubra Sarg. not L. nec Duroi
triloba Michx 1803
Local namesSpanish red oak; swamp red oak; southern red oak ;
RangeSE USA; to 750 m; introduced in Europe en 1763;
Growth habit20-30 m; trunk short, crown rounded;
Leaves 8-30 x 5-15 cm; 3 to 7 lobes elongated, sickle-shaped, with deep sinuses; thick; base rounded; lustrous dark green above, with rusty hairs beneath; petiole yellowish, often pubescent, 2-5 cm; autumn leaves have not the red color of other species of "red oaks".
Flowers 
Fruitsacorn 1-2 cm, singly or paired; globose; apex often striate; cup shallow, scaly, broad, enclosing 1/3 of nut; maturing in 2 years; first acorns when the tree is 25 year old;

Bark, twigs and
buds

bark dark grey, deeply furrowed into thick plates; inner bark is light yellow, as in Q.velutina; twigs angled, with rusty hairs; bud light brown, silky near apex, 4-8 mm long;
Hardiness zone, habitathardy; prefers acidic, dry soils, even poor or clayey;
Miscellaneous-- A. Camus : n° 419;
-- section Lobatae;
-- "Spanish", because present on the territory of the first Spanish colonies;
-- numerous hybrids, among them :
Q.x caesariensis with Q.ilicifolia, Q.x beaumontiana with Q.laurifolia ;
Subspecies and
varieties
--- var. pagodifolia Elliott = Q.pagoda Rafinesque (see this name);
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