Oaks of the World

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  Quercus brantii
Author Lindl. 1840 Bot. Reg. 26: t. 41 1840
Synonyms persica Jaubert &t Spach 1843
brantii subsp persica (Jaub. & Spach) O.Schwarz 1936
aegilops subsp brantii (Lindl.) A.Camus 1936
aegilops subsp persica (Jaub. & Spach) Blakelock 1951
Local names
Range East Turkey (Zagros Mounts); W and S Iran; N Iraq; Desert of Syria; 300 to 1900 m;
Growth habit reaches 10 m, with trunk to 0.8 m in diametre; often smaller; rounded crown;
Leaves 6-12 cm x 4-8, leathery, deciduous; oval or oblong oval; apex acute; base rounded or cordate; greyish green, scarcely stellate pubescent above; yellowish, glandular tomentum beneath, with stellate and glandular hairs; 8-14 pairs of regular teeth with long cusps (almost as long as the teeth); 8-16 vein pairs ending in the teeth; intercalary veins absent; petiole 1-2 cm long;
Flowers male inflorescence 4-5 cm long; pistillate inflorescence 15 cm long, with 1 or 2 cups;
Fruits acorn to 5 cm long, with basal scar strongly convex, often depressed at apex; cupule subsessile, halfround or conical, 4 cm in diameter, 2-3 cm high, with long (5-7 mm), pubescent, narrow scales, upper ones recurved; rippening second year; edible;

Bark, twigs and

bark fissured, grey; stout, spreading branches; young twigs with yellowish pubescence; buds 2-5 mm long, conical, angled, pubescent;
Hardiness zone, habitat hardy zone 7-8; all types of soils but prefers calcareous ones; very drought resistant; slow-growing in cultivation;
Miscellaneous -- Sub-genus Cerris, section Cerris;
-- Closely related to Q. macrolepis, from which it differs mainly in having leaves with a regular serration;
-- Hybrids with Q.libani (= Q.x oophora Kotschy 1862, = Q.brantii subsp oophora (Kotschy) O.Schwarz 1936), and with Q. infectoria (= Q.x squamulosa Djavanchir 1977).

Subspecies and
In its range, this species is very variable in appearance of leaves and characteristics of cupule; several varieties have been described:

-- var. brantii: cupule halfround-conical, with lanceolate or broad, linear scales, lower ones appressed and upper ones recurved;

-- var. belangeri  (A. DC) Zohary 1961 (= Q.persica var. belangeri A.DC 1864): cupule with filiform long (2-3 cm) upper  scales, broader lower scales;

-- var. persica (Jaub. & Spach) Zohary 1961: cupule funnel-shaped with fusiform fruit;