Oaks of the World

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  Quercus libani
Author G.Olivier 1801
Synonyms carduchorum K.Koch 1849
serratifolia Benth. ex Petzh. & Kirchn. 1864
squarrosa Kotschy ex A.DC 1864
tchihatchewii Kotschy 1860
Local names Lebanon's oak;
Range Syria, Lebanon, Asia Minor (in mountains); introduced in Europe in 1856 (in Great Britain);
Growth habit 10-20 m; sometimes less than 3 m;
Leaves 4-10 x 2-3 cm; oval-lanceolate to lanceolate; base rounded, apex pointed; dark lustrous green adaxially; paler, slightly pubescent beneath; 10-16 vein pairs, each ending in a long acuminate tooth; petiole slender, 0.6-1 cm;
Flowers  
Fruits acorn 2 cm long; peduncle short an thick; enclosed 3/4 by cup; cup thick with long, recurved, tomentose scales; maturing in 2 years; basal scar flat or convex, large; 

Bark, twigs and
buds

bark dark grey with orangey-coloured furrows; twigs olive brown, rough, lenticellate; buds red brown, scaly;
Hardiness zone, habitat hardy; all types of soils;
Miscellaneous -- A. Camus : n° 111 ;
-- slow growing; lives up to 100 years;
Subspecies and
varieties

--- This species is strongly variable concerning the leaves (pubescence of lower side), and cupule; in 1967, Djavanchir-Khoie described numerous new species in Lebanon, but they are actually synonyms of Q.libani.

--- var. angustifolia

--- var. regia (Lindl.)
Boiss. 1879
= Q.regia Lindl. 1840 (A. Camus : n° 112) 
habit of a chesnut tree; bark smooth, fissured, dark brown; leaves deciduous 10-15 x 3.5-5 cm, slightly paler beneath than above, glabrous on both sides, margins with 9-12 vein pairs; acorn completely covered by cup;
for Govaerts & Frodin, it is a synonym of Q.libani.

--- Q.libani var. vesca : see Q.vesca ;

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