Oaks of the World

Classifications List of
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(Hybrids A to F --- Hybrids G to L --- Hybrids M to R)
x salcedoi Vicioso 1950 faginea x petraea ssp huguetiana
sometimes less than 3m; young leaves with stellate hairs adaxially becoming glabrous; abaxially dense, stellate pubescence with longer hairs along midrib.
North Spain;
x sargentii Rehd.

montana x robur
Sargent oak
15 m tall; hardy; well known back to 1830 or before.

x saulii C.K.Schneid. 1904

alba x prinus (montana), ou alba x michauxii
= x beadlei Trel. ex Palmer
reaches 18m ; leaves with 6-8 pairs of lobes; cultivated since 1883 ; wide soil tolerance; hardy;
Central and N.E. USA ;

x schneideri Vierh. 1912 cerris x trojana
N.O. Balkans ; Albania ;
x schochiana
Dieck ex E.J.Palmer 1892

palustris x phellos
20m ; spreading crown; leaves 5-18 cm long, sometimes with small sharp lobes but often entire, oblong, lustrous, bright yellow in autumn, evergreen in sheltered places; hardy; prefers wet soils; discovered at Worlitz in 1894 and introduced in Europe the same year; native where parents are meeting; Illinois, Kentucky, Arkansas;

x schuettei Trel. 1917 bicolor x macrocarpa
Schuettes oak
20 m tall and more, with a 12 m spread; hardy;
Wisconsin ;

x senneniana A.Camus faginea ssp broteroi x rotundifolia
or faginea x ilex
twig glabrescent; bud 3-5 mm, pointed, with striate, ciliate, pinkish brown scales; semi-evergreen leaves 2.5-5.5 x 1-4 cm, crenate-dentate with few, inconspicuous teeth (variable margins, actually), very leathery, lustrous and hairless above execpt along midrib, paler green beneath with thick, short, yellowish grey tomentum; 8-10 parallel vein pairs; male catkins 4-7 cm with hairy axis; cup enclosing more than 1/2 of nut, with appressed, tomentose scales; acorn light brown, with stigmas divided at their base;
North Spain

x serratoides Uyeki 1932 mongolica x serrata
= neostuxbergii Koidz. 1912
= x paucilepis Uyeki 1932
= x crispuloides Uyeki 1934
x smallii Trel. 1917 georgiana x marilandica
Georgia ;
x stello´des E.J. Palmer 1937

prinoides x stellata
rarely exceeding 3 m.
Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma ;

x sterilis Trel. ex E.J.Palmer 1917 marilandica x nigra
Georgia, North Carolina, Texas;
x sternbergii shumardii X buckleyi
x sterrettii Trel. 1924 lyrata x stellata
Arkansas ;
x subintegra (Engelm.) Trel. 1917 falcata x incana
= falcata var. subintegra Engelm. 1877
x substellata Trel. 1924 bicolor x stellata
New Jersey ;
x succulenta Small 1905 pro sp. geminata X minima
= geminata var. succulenta (Small)Trel. 1924
x szechenyana Borbas 1886 frainetto x pubescens
= x braunii Borbas 1887
= x topaliae A.Camus 1939
Hungary; Turkey; S.E. Europe;
x tabajdiana Simonk 1886 frainetto x petraea
= x subgladulsosa Borbas 1886
= x tufae Simonk. 1886
from Hungary to S.E. Europe;
x takaoyamensis Mak. 1920 acuta X sessilifolia
x tharpii C.H.Muller 1938
( pro sp.)
graciliformis x emoryi
leaves shorter than those of graciliformis
Texas ;
x thellungii A.Camus 1939 pubescens x robur x petraea
= x helvetica Thell.
1916, nom. illeg.
x tingitana A.Camus 1939 faginea x fruticosa
= x aruciensis Vicioso 1950
= x clementei Vicioso 1950
Northern Spain;
x tottenii Melvin 1956 lyrata x michauxii
North Carolina;
x townei E.J.Palmer 1948 dumosa x lobata
x trabutii Hy 1895 emend. Rouy

pyrenaica x petraea
= x legionensis C.Vicioso 1950 pro parte
= x guerangeri Hy 1895
leaves 8-15 x 6-9 cm, deciduous, deeply cut; 7-9 veins pairs hairy beneath and with a few stellate hairs above; petiole slightly pubescent, 1-2 cm long; twig olive brown or pinkish browh, often pubescent until autumn; bud 4-7 mm, with persistent bracts and pubescent scales; male catkins with hairy axis; fruit sessile or on short peduncle 0.4-1 cm; scales cup long, obtuse, pubescent, flat; acorn 1.2-2 cm, navelworted or rounded at apex, stylopodium pubescent, stigmas divergent at their base;
S.W. France ; North Spain;

Q. x legionensis is more exactly a hybrid between Q. pyrenaica and Q. huguetiana, with smaller leaves remaining often pubescent above; 5-8 vein pairs; cup with convex scales;

x tridentata Engelm. ex A.DC 1864 imbricaria x marilandica
Missouri, Illinois ;
x turneri Willd. 1809 ilex x robur
= austriaca var. sempervirens hort.
= sempervirens hort.
= glandulifera Mast. not Bl.
"Turner's oak"
15 m ; spreading crown, branched from low on the trunk; leaves 4-11cm long, semi-evergreen, weakly toothed near apex, shallowly lobed, leathery, dark lustrous green above, base cuneate; petiole 0.4 to 0.8cm long; acorns 2cm long, several on a tomentose stalk to 7cm; bark purplish grey, smooth, becoming shallowly ridged;
garden origin, born during the 18th centuty in Essex (Turner's nurseries); propagation only by grafting; cultivar pseudo-turneri (also known under other names : Q. austriaca sempervirens, Q. pseudo-turneri Schneid. and Q.aizoon Koehne) is the most often cultivated, with leaves a little larger than the type;

For A.Camus, one can separate 2 species depending on whether ilex dominate robur or vice versa :
1/ ilex > robur
= x turneri Willd. 1899
2/ ilex < robur
= x pseudoturneri C.K.Schneider 1904
= turneri var. pseudoturneri Elwes and Henry 1910
= x aizoon Koehne 1904

For Govaerts & Frodin (1998) one must distinguish :
1/ Q. x turneri Willd.
= Q. 'Turneri' (the species described above)
2/ Q. x turneri A.DC
= Q. x hispanica Lam.
= Q. x turneri var. pseudoturneri (C.K.Schneid.) Elwes and Henry
= Q. cerris x Q. suber

x undulata Torr. 1828

gambelii x turbinella
= x fendleri Liebm. 1854
= gambelii var. fendleri (Liebm.)
A.Nelson 1909
= undulata A.DC 1864
= undulata Sarg. p.p.
= x pauciloba Rydb. 1901 (pro sp.)
= x venustula Greene 1890
= x subobtusifolia A.Camus 1935
= x rydbergiana Cockerell 1903
"wavyleaf oak"
1 to 3 m; rarely reaches 8 m; evergreen; scaly grey bark; leaves 4-9cm long, 3-5 wide, lustrous and light glaucous above, light brown tomentose beneath; margin with 2-5 pairs of pointed and mucronate lobes; acorn 1.5-1.8cm long, mucronate, light brown, enclosed for 1/3 of length in bowl-shaped, reddish brown cup; maturing in 1 year; not very hardy; all types of soils.
A. Camus = n░ 261 ;
Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas ; Mexico (Chihuahua) ;

-- The species Q. gambelii hybridizes frequently, creating a population of hybrids described under the name " Q. x undulata complex " by Little in 1979, in order to change the name Q. undulata Torr.1827 ; the previous term was the name of a species whose common name is "wavyleaf oak", or "Rocky Mountain shin oak" ;
J.M. Tucker, in 1971, had yet indentified the main parents of this hybrid species : Q. turbinella, Q  grisea, Q. havardii, Q. mohriana, Q arizonica and Q. muehlenbergii ; hybrids between Q  gambelii and an evergreen species are often semi-evergreen;

--The name "undulata" inspired many Authors ! One can list the following :
Q. undulata
Engelm 1878 (= Q. sinuata Walt.),
Q. undulata
Kit.1863 (= Q. pubescens Willd.),
Q. undulata
Benth. 1841 (= Q. benthamii A.DC),
Q. undulata K.Koch 1847 (= Q. lusitanica Lam.),
Q. undulata
Torr 1827 (= Q. x undulata complex Little 1979),
Q. undulata
Sarg., and A.DC (more or less = Q. x pauciloba ...),
Q. undulata S. Wats. (= Q. gambelii Nutt.) ;

pubescens ssp subpyrenaica X rotundifolia

x vaga Palm. et Steyerm. 1935 palustris x velutina
Missouri ;
x venulosa Ashe 1926 arkansana x incana
Florida ;
x vilmoriniana A.Camus 1935 dentata X petraea
For Govaerts & Frodin, it is a cultivar : Q. 'Vilmoriniana' ;
x viverii Sennen 1928 canariensis x petraea
[according to Govaerts; for other Authors (O.Schwarz) it is canariensis x robur]

20-25 m; twig sulcate, greyish, tomentose at first, becoming glabrescent; bud 5-9 mm long, pointed, with ciliate, obtuse scales; leaves very heterogenous, semi-evergreen 8-20 x 6-10 cm, leathery, convex, glabrescent above and somewhat fluffy beneath; base auricled (a strong argument for Q. robur), margin wavy; 6-9 parallel vein pairs; petiole irregularly pinkish white tomentose, 0.8-2.5 cm long; fruit sessile or on short, thick, greyish tomentose peduncle; cup scales appressed, more or less convex, pubescent, dark grey; acorn enclosed almost entirely by cup; stigmas flat, curved; flowering in May;
Northern Spain;

x vulcanica Borzi 1905 frainetto x pubescens
leaves recalling one parent or other, hairy beneath; young twigs tomentose first, becoming glabrous; both petiole and cup stalk are short;
Bosnia, Serbia, Greece, South Italy, Turkey ;
x wagneri Gaynor 1987 bicolor x prinoides
Michigan ;
x walteriana Ashe 1916 laevis x nigra
South Carolina, Georgia, Florida;
x warburgii A. Camus 1939

robur x rugosa
= obtusata Henry, not Bonpl.
Semi-evergreen tree, with copper-coloured leaves in spring;
before 1939, date of taxon description by A. Camus, it was named Q. obtusata ; in 1933, Warburg admitted it is a hybrid;
it is not quite sure that parents are robur and rugosa.
At Cambridge, one of the 2 original trees (the other being at Kew) reaches 20 m high, for a trunk 2m in diameter.

x warei Green & Hess 1996 bicolor X robur
cultivar : Q. x warei 'Long' PPAF (or 'Regal Prince') is Q. bicolor X Q. robur 'fastigiata' : columnar habit, silvery leaves underneath; rather fast growing.
x willdenowiana
(Dipp.) Beissn. 1903
falcata x velutina
= tinctoria var. willdenowiana Dippel 1891
= x pinetorum Moldenke 1953
North Carolina, Georgia, Arkansas;
x zehra rysophylla X falcata