Oaks of the World

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  Quercus semecarpifolia
Author Sm. in Rees 1814 Cycl. 29: 20
Synonyms cassura Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don 1825
obtusifolia D.Don 1825, not Rydb. 1901
Local names Brown oak ; kharshu oak ; gao shan li ;
Range Afghanistan, Bhutan, China (Xizang), India (Kumaun, Sikkim), Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan; 2500-4000 m;
Growth habit reaches 20-30 m tall; often smaller; trunk to 1.5 m in diameter; columnar habit with domed crown; spreading branches;
Leaves 5-10 x 3-6 cm ; evergreen or semi-evergreen; leathery; oval or oblong; apex obtuse; base more or less cordate; margin entire (above all on older twigs) or with 1-8 sharp teeth, wavy; dark green, soon hailess above; downy, fawn-coloured beneath, but older leaves become nearly glabrous; 7-12 vein pairs; midrib sinuous near apex; petiole stout, 3-7 mm long, brown tomentose;
Flowers male catkins 5-12 cm, golden yellow; pistillate inflorescences 2-7 cm, bearing 1-3 flowers; May-June;
Fruits acorn 1.8-2.5 cm in diameter, globose to ovate, glabrous, black when mature; singly or paired on a short downy stalk; apex pointed; cup flat, 1 mm thick, at the base of the nut only; scales triangular, ciliate, grey brown; maturing in 2 years;

Bark, twigs and

bark dark greyish, fissured into small square plates; twigs, buds, stipules pubescent, becoming hairless at fall; twigs with rounded, pale lenticels, becoming dark brown green and rough; buds conical 3-6 mm long;
Hardiness zone, habitat hardy; all types of soils; mountain forests;
Miscellaneous -- A. Camus : n 92;
-- Sub-genus Cerris, Section Ilex;
-- See the Key for Asian simalar Quercus;

Subspecies and
-- Q.pannosa Hand.-Mazz. 1929 Symb. Sin. 7: 35
= Q.ilex var. rufescens Franchet 1899 p.p.
= Q.semecarpifolia var. rufescens (Franch.) Schottky 1912
= Q. aquifolioides var. rufescens (Franch.) W.W.Sm. 1924
is an ecological race with  leaves shorter (max. 4.5 cm) and not or less revolute, with hairs covering densely the secondary veins, peduncle shorter and cup adherent completely to the nut;