Oaks of the World

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 Quercus mexicana
Author Bonpl. 1809 Pl. Aequinoct. 2: 35
Synonymscastanea var. mexicana (Bonpl.)A.DC 1864
castanea var. integra Oerst. 1871
mexicana f. lanulosa Trel. and f. perfertilis Trel.
mexicana fo. bonplandii Trel. 1924
malifolia Trel. 1924
pablillensis C.H.Muller 1942
rugulosa Mart. & Gal. 1843 (A.Camus n° 380)
rugulosa f. subtruncata Trel. 1924
sipuraca Trel. 1924
Local names encino tezahuatl;
Range Mexico (Coahuila, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Mexico, Nuevo Leon, Puebla, Querétaro, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala , Vera-Cruz); 1600-3050 m;
Growth habit usually small tree to 3-8 m high, but reaches 20 m;

3-10 x 1-4 cm; deciduous; oblong, elliptic or oblong-oboval; apex acute or subacute or even rounded, bristle-tipped; base round to cordate; margin thick, slightly revolute, cartilaginous, often undulate, entire; adaxially dark green, lustrous, hairless except some stellate hairs along midrib and at the base; beneath with pale grey brown, scattered, tangled fascicled tomentum, like dots on the epidermis, and axil tufts; 7-12 vein pairs nearly flat adaxially, slightly prominent beneath (even though midrib is strongly raised), straight but forked before reaching margin; adaxially the midrib is sunken; epidermis smooth, or papillose, not bullate; petiole 2-8 mm long, hairy at first, then glabrescent;

Flowers male catkins 3-5 cm long, woolly; female inflorescences less than 0.5 cm long, with 1-4 pubescent flowers;
Fruits acorn 1-1.5 cm long, subglobose, hairless except at mucronate apex; singly or to 2-3 together, on a peduncle less than 0.5 cm long; cup with rim not rolled inside, enclosing 1/3 to 1/2 of nut, with apicaly rounded pubescent scales; maturing in 2 years between August and January;

Bark, twigs and

bark scaly, light grey; twig slender (1.5-2 mm thick), angled in cross-section, brown stellate tomentose at first, becoming hairless, grey brown; lenticels of the same colour, reaching 11 mm long; bud 2-3 cm long, ovoid, slightly pointed, with ciliate scales ; stipules 3-5 cm long, deciduous or sometimes persistent around apical bud;
Hardiness zone, habitat hardy in zone 7 (withstands -15° C); perfers dry soils; fast growing;
Miscellaneous-- A.Camus : n° 313;
-- Sub-genus Quercus, section Lobatae; sub-section Mexicanae;
-- One must not confuse this taxon with Q. mexicana Benth. 1840, which is a synonym of Q. crassipes Humb. & Bonpl. 1809;
-- For some Authors, it is a synonym of Q.crassipes, but not for Govaerts & Frodin who think it is a true species (just as Susana Valencia-Avalos, 2004, who nevertheless places Q.malifolia in synonymy with both Q.crassipes and Q.mexicana...!);
-- Possible confusion with Q. eduardi as both have contorted fascicled hairs abaxially ; however eduardi has leaves oblong or oblanceolate or elliptic-oboval, with margin usually toothed near apex, and 5-8 vein pairs.
Subspecies and
-- Hybridizes with Q. grahamii.