Oaks of the World

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 Quercus hartwissiana
Author Stev. 1857 Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 30: 387
Synonymsarmeniaca Kotschy 1864 p. p.
stranjensis Turrill 1928
robur var. armeniaca A.DC. 1864
hartwissiana var. macrocarpa (Medw.) A.Camus 1939
Local names 
RangeSouth and East Bulgaria; Asia Minor; The Caucasus; 1000-1500 m;
Growth habit7-9 m in cultivation, but may reach 35 m;
Leaves 7-15 x 3.5-6.5 cm; oblong to oboval; sinuate-dentate, with 5-12 pairs of short, rounded, rather narrow lobes; base subcordate, oblique, sometimes auricled; shiny dark green, glabrous above; pale, scarcely pubescent beneath; 7-13 secondary veins parallel, straight; tertiary veins not evident; petiole 1.3-2.2 cm long;
Fruitsacorn 1.8-3 cm long, 1.5 cm in diameter; sub-ovoid, mucronate; large peduncle to 4 cm; cup 1.2 cm in diameter, with thin wall, enclosing 1/3 of nut; scales broad, thin, appressed except at tip, whitish tomentose;

Bark, twigs and

bark thick,  finely furrowed, dark reddish brown; twig reddish, hairless;
Hardiness zone, habitathardy; all types of soils; very fast-growing at first;
Miscellaneous-- A. Camus : n° 154 ;
-- Identical to Q.roburoides Bér., species vanished today, abundant at Pliocene, "ancestor" of Q.petraea,
Q.pubescens and Q.robur.
Subspecies and
-- a variety has been described : var. ajudaghiensis Steven;